Ti(berius) claudius drusi f(ilius) caesar aug(ustus)
Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus 42 B. His reign is seen as a period of growth and consolidation of the power of the Julio-Claudian family.
Tiberius was born in Rome, both his parents being members of noted Roman patrician families. Tiberius was, therefore, the stepson of the future emperor and later became both his adopted son and heir, as well as his son-in-law.
Tiberius was first introduced into public life at the age of 9, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's funeral. He entered the military service, performing ably and well, until suddenly, in 6 B. It was at this time that he was named tribune, a high administrative post which he held for 10 years. At the death of Augustus in 14, Tiberius assumed control of the government, and his election as emperor was formally confirmed by the Roman Senate, although at this time no scheme of hereditary succession had been established.
As a contemporary historian, Tacitus, states, "Tiberius would inaugurate everything with the consuls, as though the ancient constitution remained, and he hesitated about being emperor. When he came to the throne, Tiberius was already a middle-aged man. His first marriage had been dissolved by order of Augustus, and he had been forced by the Emperor to marry Augustus's daughter, Julia, in 12 B. During his period of retirement in Rhodes, Tiberius had spent a great deal of time studying philosophy and literature, and according to Suetonius, one of his biographers, "he was greatly devoted to liberal studies in both languages, Greek and Latin.
Tiberius was a skillful administrator, conservative in matters of finance. In the governing of the provinces, he followed the policies which had been established by Augustus. His military policy was to strengthen and fortify the defenses of the empire and to use diplomacy rather than force. His reign marks the beginning of the Pax Romana, a period of years of relative peace and stability.
The latter years of his rule were marred by conspiracies, frequent trials for sedition maiestas in the Senate, and dangerous accusations from all sides. Tiberius became increasingly fearful for his safety. He was encouraged by his advisers to retire from public view. He went to Capri in A. In 37 he died, contemporary sources say, completely insane.
Contemporary biographies of Tiberius were written by Tacitus and Suetonius. Further material on the Emperor can be found in Frank B. Rogers, Studies in the Reign of Tiberius Shotter, D.Perspective view architectural engraving of the Porta Maggiore, a major landmark in Rome, Italy. Once part of an ancient Roman aqueduct, it consists of two arches that support three tiers of inscriptions that explain its history. Originally, the Porta Maggiore was part of an aqueduct that Emperor Claudius had built in 52 AD at the intersection of Via Prenestina and Via Labicana to convey water from the countryside into the city.
Later the arches were incorporated into the city walls and named Porta Prenestina. Much later the gate became known by its present name because of its proximity to the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. Today, the plaza in front of it is a focal point of Roman transit and just behind the gate is a railway bridge for trains entering and exiting the Termini railway station.
The first inscription credits the Emperor Claudius for building the first aqueduct. The next inscription explains that after nine years of interruption, the Emperor Caesar Vespasian, Augustus, restored the flow of water, and the third explains the later restoration of the wall by Emperor Titus Caesar. His firm published maps and a wide range of prints: ancient and modern Rome, portraits, ornament and mythological, historical and religious subjects.
He also bought and sold drawings, coins and medals. Speculum did not have fixed contents; each copy was unique and varied in terms of the number of pages, subjects included, and even the printers and engravers. Moreover, later collectors also added prints to earlier sets. The University of Chicago holds the largest extant collection of Speculum, which may be viewed online on its web site see References below.
Tiberius Claudius, son of Drusus, Caesar, Augustus, Germanicus, Pontifex Maximus, having held the tribunician power twelve times, five times consul, twenty-seven times imperator, father of the country pater patriaearranged, at his own expense, that the aqua Claudia be brought into the City from the 45th milestone, from the springs called Caeruleus and Curtius, and from the Anio Novus too from the 62nd milestone.
Emperor Caesar Vespasian, Augustus, pontifex maximus, having held the tribunician power twice, six times imperator, three times consul, consul designatus fourth time, father of the country pater patriaeat his own expense, restored for the City the springs of the Curtius and Caeruleus that had been brought forth by the divine Claudius and that later had been interrupted and dispersed for nine years. Emperor Titus Caesar, son of the divine [Vespasian], Vespasian Augustus, pontifex maximus, having held the tribunician power ten times, seventeen-times imperator, father of the country pater patriaecensor, eight times consul, arranged that the springs of the Curtius and the Caeruleus that had been brought forth by the divine Claudius and afterwards had been restored for the City by his father, the divine Vespasian, since they had been dispersed at the source of the waters from the ground, due to its antiquity, be brought back again in a new channel at his own expense.
Page T. Condition: Generally very good with the usual overall light toning and wear. Center fold as issued. Printed on laid paper without watermark. Top margin short, perhaps as issued, later professionally extended with laid paper.
Few short tears restored professionally restored, also flattened, cleaned and deacidified, with only minor discoloration in left margin still present, unobtrusive. Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs.
Product Description Continues Below. Add to Wishlist. Description Description Originally, the Porta Maggiore was part of an aqueduct that Emperor Claudius had built in 52 AD at the intersection of Via Prenestina and Via Labicana to convey water from the countryside into the city. Translations by University of Chicago : Tiberius Claudius, son of Drusus, Caesar, Augustus, Germanicus, Pontifex Maximus, having held the tribunician power twelve times, five times consul, twenty-seven times imperator, father of the country pater patriaearranged, at his own expense, that the aqua Claudia be brought into the City from the 45th milestone, from the springs called Caeruleus and Curtius, and from the Anio Novus too from the 62nd milestone.She exercised a powerful influence over Tiberius and within the first imperial family.
Tiberius divorced Vipsania against his will at the command of Agustus non sine magno angore animi "not without great mental anguish" to marry his daughter Julia the Elder. Julia the Elder: Second wife of the emperor Tiberius and daughter of the emperor Augustus. Tiberius was commanded to divorce his first wife and marry Julia.
The marriage was not a happy one. He, along with his cousin and adopted brother Germanicus, was in line to succeed his father. He either died of natural causes or was murdered by Sejanus. Germanicus Julius Caesar: The very popular general and statesman was nephew and adopted son to Tiberius.
Known for his highly successful campaigns against the Germanic tribes where he avenged the staggering losses to Rome under Augustus at the Battle of the Teutoberg Forest. He was considered one of Romes greatest heroes. He was very popular with the Roman people well after his death at the relatively young age of In 35 AD, two years before his death, Tiberius named his great-nephew and adoptive grandson son of Germanicus Gaius Caligula as his heir along with his sixteen year old grandson Tiberius Gemellus.
The obverse of this coin depicts Tiberius, the second Emperor of Rome.
The obverse inscription is his name as it was after the death of his adopted father the divine Augustus and shows his connection to the the Julian line.
He shows here not only his connection to his adopted father Augustus, the first emperor of Rome, but also his connection to Julius Caesar who was the maternal great-uncle and adopted father of Augustus. With Divi Augustus Filius, he reminds us of the fact that he is the son and successor of a God. Livia is the link between the Julian and Claudian families who give their names to the founding family: The Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Livia was Augustus's third wife and he was her second husband. She was from the Claudii, an old and distinguished family who exercised great influence since the early republic.
Tiberius also reminds us that he is the Pontifex Maximus or the head of the college of priests of the Roman religion. Both a religious, state and political office.
Minted early in his reign est. Mark " Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription?Tiberius and Drusus
And they said unto him, Caesar's. Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. The portrait on the coin may certainly have been of Tiberius, it also could have been Augustus. The coin could have been a denarius but it could very well have been another type of coin, or another type of denarius. The simple fact is there is just no way of knowing what exact coin type he held or who exactly was on it.
There is, however, no doubt that if any of the commonly estimated years given for the birth and death of jesus are correct, Tiberius was certainly in power at this time.
Tiberius would have been nearing the end of a long 22 year rule that began when Jesus was most likely in his teens.
He was the eldest son to Livia Drusilla and her first husband who was also named Tiberius Claudius Nero. Both his mother and father were members of the wealthy and powerful Claudian family, specifically the Claudii Nerones.Gemellus is a nickname meaning "the twin".
His father and older cousins died, and are suspected by contemporary sources as having been systematically eliminated by the powerful praetorian prefect Sejanus.
Their removal allowed Gemellus and Caligula to be named joint-heirs by Tiberius in 35, a decision that ultimately resulted in Caligula assuming power and having Gemellus killed, or by forcing him to kill himself, in late 37 or early His paternal grandparents were emperor Tiberius and his wife, Vipsania Agrippinawith his maternal grandparents being general Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor.
As a member of the Julio-Claudian dynastyGemellus was a close relative of all five Julio-Claudian emperors. On his father's side, he was the grandson of emperor Tiberius, and his adoptive great-grandfather was the founder of the Roman Empire, Augustus. On his mother's side, he was the nephew of Claudiusthe maternal uncle of Neroand the cousin of Caligula.
In the spring of 22, his father Drusus received tribunicia potestas tribunician power from the Senate, a clear sign that Drusus was Tiberius' heir. In the account of TacitusSejanus began plotting against Drusus to secure his position. According to Cassius Dio and Tacitus, his father was poisoned by his wife Livilla at the behest of Sejanus. The exact cause of the feud is unknown. His father's death not only devastated Tiberius but also challenged the future of the principate. Tiberius still trusted Sejanus and had no suspicion.
Since Gemellus was too young, Tiberius adopted his grandchildren by Germanicus, Nero and Drususand recommended them to the Senate. By 26, the emperor had withdrawn from politics altogether and moved to Caprileaving the management of the empire to Sejanus who then began eliminating other members of the imperial family. Germanicus' son Drusus was imprisoned within the dungeon under the Imperial palace on the Palatine Hillwhere he starved to death not long after.
Nero died in exile in Suetonius says Tiberius promoted the rise of Sejanus to secure the succession of Gemellus, his natural grandson, at the expense of Germanicus' sons Nero and Drusus. Sejanus remained powerful until his sudden downfall and summary execution in October 31, the exact reasons for which remain unclear.
According to Cassius Dio, she left a message for the emperor: his son had been murdered by his wife Livilla and her lover, Sejanus. The story should be read with caution.
Levick says that Sejanus must have murdered Drusus in self-defense because only Tiberius stood between the Praetorian Prefect and the end of his career at the hands of Drusus. Furthermore, he says it is even less likely that Livilla would have been complicit in the destruction of her family, the key to her children's future. Levick dismisses the accusation of Apicata as the revenge of a woman whose husband left her for another.
The deaths of his cousins elevated Gemellus and his older cousin Gaius Caesar Caligula. As there was no formal mechanism for succession, the only legal way he could promote an heir who was too young to share the political powers of emperor was to bequeath his estate upon which much of the Roman state had come to depend.
According to Suetonius, Tiberius had suspicions of Gaius but he detested Gemellus as he believed him to be the result of an adulterous affair by his mother.Claudius I a domnit ca imparat al Imperiului Roman printr-un joc al sortii, urmand la tron nepotului sau de frate, Caligula.
Accederea lui Claudius la tron s-a produs ca o surpriza a istoriei si cu atat mai mult a populatiei romane si a apropiatilor familiei imperiale, ale Senatului sau ale oamenilor simpli. In copilarie a fost victima a numeroase boli care si-au lasat amprenta asupra slabiciunii care s-au adaugat unor infirmitati congenitale -dificultati de mers si de vorbire.
Totusi, de copil a avut o inclinatie deosebita spre disciplinele liberale si chiar a publicat adesea lucrari de diferite genuri, cu predilectie in istorie. Era desconsiderat in familie, fapt ce trebuie sa-l fi marcat profund pentru viitor, accentuandu-i nesiguranta si timiditatea. Cu toate ca familia il obliga sa traiasca in izolare n-a fost lipsit totusi, niciodata de respectul oamenilor si de stima publica. Ordinul cavalerilor l-a ales de doua ori seful unor delegatii: prima oara, cand au cerut sa duca ei pe umeri, corpul neinsufletit al lui Augustus si a doua oara cand au dorit sa aduca multumiri consulilor pentru suprimarea lui Seianus.
Senatul a dat un decret prin care se acorda dreptul sa fie numit, in mod extraordinar, in randurile preotilor lui Augustus.
In concluzie familia imperiala era jenata de infirmitatea lui Claudius care intr-o lume de luptatori era greu de acceptat, mai ales cand se punea pe picioare o dinastie. Pe parcursul intregii perioade de excludere a sa din viata politica si de la onoruri a facut studii stiintifice care se refereau mult la literatura si gramatica.
Mai tarziu cand a ajuns imparat, a profitat de autoritatea suverana pentru a introduce, pentru un timp, trei noi litere in alfabetul latin. Si in timpul domniei a scris mult dar lucrarile totdeauna i-au fost citite, in public, de un lector datorita greutatilor in vorbire pe care le-a avut toata viata. Oricum nimic nu parea sa-l desemneze ca viitor imparat atunci cand el implinea 50 de ani. Ridicarea sa a fost imprevizibila pentru toata lumea.
Concomitent senatul si consulii se sfatuiau cum sa reinstaureze republica. Dar pretorienii tineau la parerea lor si la imparatul lor asa ca, sub imperiul amenintarii cu forta, senatul a ratificat repede dorinta puterii militare. Momentul a dovedit ca sub apatia lui Claudius exista o judecata iute, atunci cand se concentra. El a promis fiecarui ostas retorian Astfel a devenit primul imparat roman ridicat la tron prin influenta soldatilor si mai ales prin coruptia lor, cu bani.
Exemplul sau va fi urmat de multi alti pretendenti. Noul imparat, stangaci, timid si indecis a constituit, pe timpul a 13 ani, jocul libertilor sai si al sotiilor. Noua domnie s-a individualizat, ca o domnie a libertilor, Claudius abandonand, in mainile lor administratia curtii si a serviciilor statului.He was born at Rome to a prominent branch of the gens Claudiathe son of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina.
Drusus first entered politics with the office of quaestor in AD His political career mirrored that of Germanicus, and he assumed all his offices at the same age as him. Following the model of Augustus, it was intended that the two would rule together. They were both popular, and many dedications have been found in their honor across Roman Italy.
Drusus died suddenly 14 September 23, seemingly from natural causes. Ancient historians, such as Tacitus and Suetoniusclaim he died amid a feud with the powerful SejanusPraetorian prefect of Rome. They allege that he had been murdered. In their account, Sejanus had seduced his wife Livillaand with the help of a doctor she had poisoned Drusus. Despite the rumors, Tiberius did not suspect Sejanus and the two remained friends until Sejanus' fall from grace in Drusus was the maternal grandson of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippaa close friend of Augustus, and his first wife Caecilia Attica.
As a member of the Julio-Claudian dynastyhe was a close relative of all five Julio-Claudian emperors. His father was emperor, and his adoptive grandfather was the founder of the Roman Empire, Augustus. On his mother's side, he was the cousin of Caligulaa paternal cousin of Claudiusand a first cousin once removed of Nero - all future emperors of Rome.
They advanced through their careers at the same pace and were going to rule together; however, they died young, forcing Augustus to draw another line of succession. Like the sons of Agrippa, it was the intention of Augustus that Germanicus and Drusus would rule together. Later that year, Drusus was married to his paternal cousin, Livilla, to bring him closer to the Julians. Tacitus says she was unattractive as a child, but grew up to be beautiful.
The birth of his sons was commemorated on coins. Just as Agrippa's sons were, Drusus was about the same age as Germanicus, and both of them also followed parallel careers.
Drusus and Germanicus held all their offices at the same age, and progressed through the cursus honorum at the same pace. Both held the office of quaestor at the same age, both were exempted from holding the praetorship, they held their first and second consulships at the same age, and both were given proconsular imperium maius when they were sent to govern Germania and Illyricum respectively.
Drusus' first office was that of quaestor in AD Being politically inclined, he was made a permanent member of the Senate committee Augustus had founded in AD 13 to draw up the Senate's daily business. In August of 14 his adoptive grandfather Augustus died.Tiberius Iulius Caesar Augustus 42a. A fost fiul senatorului Tiberius Claudius Nero si al Liviei Drusilla devenita, mai tarziu, sotia de o viata a imparatului Octavianus Augustus.
Astfel, fiu vitreg al lui Augustus ,Tiberius a beneficiat de o stralucita educatie si de o bogata experienta pe campul de lupta si in administrarea statului. El constituia una, din mainile puternice ale lui Augustus si ale imperiului. Acest general rece, dur, cu o statura atletica obtinea victorii pentru tatal sau vitreg. Tiberius s-a aratat sovaitor la preluarea puterii si de o modestie exagerata, aproape anormala.
A incercat sa se arate obligat de a lua fraiele puterii pe care le-a acceptat cu modestie si partial. A preluat puterea cu o oarecare teama si nesiguranta. Prudenta i-a atras avantaje politice si incredere. S-a purtat, un timp, ca un particular, primind foarte putine onoruri propuse si neadmitand lingusirea.
Incet, incet, insa, a inceput sa se arate si sa se comporte ca un imparat. Multa vreme a afisat o conduita nesigura si oscilatorie, dar placuta si indreptata spre nevoile publice. A intervenit ca sa nu se faca abuzuri, sa se elimine neglijenta in magistraturi si coruptia. A dispus masuri de austeritate economica si de corectarea moravurilor.
Astfel, a redus cheltuielile jocurilor si spectacolelor, a micsorat salariile actorilor, a fixat numarul perechilor de gladiatori care intra in arena, a opinat sa se limiteze luxul cu mobile, sa se controleze si sa se tempereze preturile, pe piata, a dat ordin de urmarirea veniturilor cabaretelor si tavernelor si a vanzarilor de marfuri prin ele. A interzis, prin edict, sarutatul zilnic dintre prieteni si rudele care se intalneau, a recomandat ca schimbul de daruri sa nu se mai faca decat la calendele lui ianuarie, a luat initiativa ca femeile cu proasta reputatie si tinerii decazuti din punct de vedere moral sa fie exilati, a interzis ceremoniile straine, ritualurile egiptene si ebraice; pe tinerii evrei, sub pretextul serviciului militar i-a trimis in provincii cu clima mai aspra.
A avut grija sa pastreze linistea in tara luand masuri impotriva talharilor, hotilor si razvratitilor. A oranduit in peninsula posturi militare mai dese si a stabilit la Roma o tabara pentru cohortele pretoriene care nu aveau cazarma proprie.
A pedepsit cu multa asprime tulburarile civile si a stabilit masuri severe pentru a le preintampina. Pe regii dusmanosi si suspecti i-a tinut in supunere mai mult prin amenintari si reprosuri iar pe altii i-a atras si retinut la Roma.
Tot ce facea la acest inceput de domnie era drept, corect si cu respectarea traditiilor romane. Duritatea sa era necesara atat in exterior cat si in interior pentru a mentine respectul pentru el si pentru imperiu.
Interventiile sale erau prompte, neinduratoare, militaroase. La 56 de ani varsta la care Tiberius a imbracat purpura, personalitatea sa se prezenta profund marcata de indelungatele campanii militare. Cei 23 de ani de domnie si varsta inaintata nu au facut decat sa-i accentueze pesimismul, suspiciunea, mizantropia si solitudinea.
Ca si in randul trupelor, s-a simtit dator sa pedepseasca orice abatere de la disciplina impusa de el, fara iertare si fara compromisuri. Puterea imperiala, preluata incet dar temeinic, l-a facut mai neindurator si poate mai razbunator cu aceia care-l sicanasera sau il dispretuisera in tinerete, sau pe care, atunci cand el lupta, ii vazuse in huzur, linguseli si trai parazitar.
Tiberius nu s-a caracterizat numai ca un conducator dur si razbunator, ci mai ales ca un conducator econom echilibrat, interesat de binele imperiului. Nu a purtat razboaie inutile de cucerire, ci a intarit ceea ce mostenise si a mai adaugat teritoriile clientelare.
Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus Facts
S-ar putea aprecia ca tot raul din el s-a revarsat numai asupra raului din apropierea lui, a raului care-l facuse sa sufere si pe care il desconspirase. Atacurile in scris sau sub forma de zvonuri le considera ca reactii de ura si manie impotriva masurilor sale bune de indreptare.
In timpul vietii sale omenirea a trait un eveniment crucial -a trait ,a propovaduit si s-a inaltat la ceruri Iisus Hristos. Odata cu domnia lui Tiberius principatul s-a afirmat ca un sistem institutional in istoria Romei antice. Imparat romanp. Politica de confidentialitate. Razboiul din Africa. Reformele administrative din timpul domniei lui Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Organizarea politica si institutiile juridice la geto-daci. Roma - Cucerirea bazinului mediteranean.